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 AI is the understanding that machines can interpret, mine, and learn from external data in a way where said machines functionally imitate cognitive practices normally attributed to humans. Artificial intelligence is based on the notion that human thought processes have the ability to both be replicated and mechanized. 

Various mathematicians, theologians, philosophers, professors, and authors mused about mechanical techniques, calculating machines, and numeral systems that all eventually led to the concept of mechanized “human” thought in non-human beings.


Ktesibios(Ctesibius) of Alexandria creates a water clock that maintained a constant flow rate using a regulator. This may have been the first “self-controlling machine”. This was important because before this moment, any change in a system would have had to be performed by a person. People were dynamic, artifacts (machines, systems, etc.) were not.


Author Samuel Butler’s novel “Erewhon” toyed with the idea that at an indeterminate point in the future machines would have the potential to possess consciousness


The British mathematician Alan Turing applies his theories to prove that a computing machine — known as a ‘Turing machine’ — would be capable of executing cognitive processes, provided they could be broken down into multiple, individual steps and represented by an algorithm. In doing so, he lays the foundation for what we call artificial intelligence today.


In the summer of 1956, scientists gather for a conference at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. They believe that aspects of learning as well as other characteristics of human intelligence can be simulated by machines. The programmer John McCarthy proposes calling this ‘artificial intelligence.’ 


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